**CONTENT**

EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY

**FOUR DIMENSIONS OF EUCLIDEAN LINEAR-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY VS THE EVER SPINNING AND EVER EVOLVING, PARTICLE AND ATOMIC BASED GEOMETRY OF THE COSMOS**

**FOUR DIMENSIONS OF MACRO-COSMIC DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY**

**REALITY VERSUS FICTION**

**EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY**

**Euclidean geometry is the linear based geometry that was developed by the Greek geometer Euclid a little over two millennia ago, the propositions of which were published in his work The Elements.**

Sub

Sub

**sequent to the publishing of this work, the straight-linear propositions of Euclid were generally**

**accepted by the**

**Greek and Roman academia of the time, and they**

**have continued to be taught as such in all of the schools and (**

*Greek & Latin*)

**universities of the world, up to the present day.**

**Geometry | Definition of Geometry by Merriam-Websterhttps://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/geometry**

*Definition*of*geometry*for Students. : a branch of mathematics that deals with points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids.**Two-dimensional definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionaryhttps://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/two-dimensional**

*two*-*dimensional*. A*two*-*dimensional*object or figure is flat rather than solid so that only its length and width can be measured.**Three-dimensional definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary**

**https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/three-dimensional**

A

A

*three*-*dimensional*object is solid rather than flat, because it can be measured in*three*different directions, usually the height, length, and width. ...**Plane; Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: In**mathematics

**, a plane is a flat, two-**dimensional surface

**that extends infinitely far. A plane is the**two-dimensional analogue

**of a**point

**(zero dimensions), a**line

**(one dimension) and**three-dimensional space

**.**

**Two intersecting planes in three-dimensional space**

**Reality: A plane is not a flat two-dimensional surface, and a flat two-dimensional surface**

An apparently flat surface, has a physical presence, which has a depth to its structure and limiting boundaries to its extent.

In the diagram of two intersecting planes, what can be seen is that the two planes

*(length and breadth)*cannot extend infinitely.An apparently flat surface, has a physical presence, which has a depth to its structure and limiting boundaries to its extent.

In the diagram of two intersecting planes, what can be seen is that the two planes

*(as with e.g. two sheets of paper)*have three visible dimensions of width, length and thickness (depth), and without the presence of a depth of thickness to the two intersecting planes, combined with the dimensions of width and length, there simply would not be any planes or diagram.**Quote: A**

Reality: Objects and figures are not two-dimensional in nature or flat, objects and figures are solid structures which possess three measurable dimensions of height breadth and width, and a visual perspective of angular depth.

*two*-*dimensional**object or figure* is flat rather than solid so that only its length and width can be measured.Reality: Objects and figures are not two-dimensional in nature or flat, objects and figures are solid structures which possess three measurable dimensions of height breadth and width, and a visual perspective of angular depth.

****

**EUCLIDEAN SPACE**

**Quote: A plane is the**two-dimensional analogue

**of a**point

**(zero dimensions), a**line

**(one dimension) and**three-dimensional space

**.**

**Reality: This statement is both nonsensical and ludicrous, hypothetically speaking and given that the Euclidean assertion that a point has no dimensions is correct, it certainly would not be possible for the nothingness of zero dimensions to multiply from non-existence into either an imaginary two-dimensional plane, or a solid plane of existence, which possesses four dimensions of width, length, depth of thickness and a visual diagonal perspective of depth.**

**There are three types of what we term as to being space**

**Drawing - Diagramatic - Geometric Space**

**A. The space which comprises the overall size of a drawings surfaces area.**

**B. The space in-between and separating two drawn items on a drawing surface area.**

**Voluminous Space**

**C. The voluminous and empty space which surrounds each of us, our planet and other celestial bodies.**

**The latter, empty and voluminous space cannot, nor does it of itself, possess any form of dimensions whatsoever, and it is entirely empty and directionless in nature.**

**As such, and given that it is impossible to draw lines of dimension or direction upon empty air, or within an empty volume of amorphous (shapeless) space.**

**It is essentially stupid, infantile or entirely disingenuous for anyone to claim, that an empty volume of space of itself, can have any straight linear dimensions or directions within its volume of amorphous emptiness.**

**And I would also point out to those readers who are of a pragmatic nature; in regard to the latter and relative to the two-dimensional**

*(comic & cartoon)*Black Hole and Wormhole theories, which are promoted by so-called theoretical*(storytelling)*physicist's, as a means of trying to convince*(t**axpayers)*we the layperson masses, that their inane- ludicrous theories are correct.**Holes and wormholes (tunnels) are essentially empty.**

**Therefore it follows in logic and rationality (common sense), that empty holes and tunnels, cannot and do not exist within the empty volumes of outer-space surrounding all celestial bodies, any more so than holes can exist within our own voluminous oceans of liquid water, here on Earth.**

**The term Black Hole is a disingenuous misnomer which was obviously coined by the immature; because the super-dense and rapidly rotating gravitational body which lies at its centre, cannot be observed due to its gravitation power being so great that it draws into its own sphere of super-dense mass, all other forms of mass and energy in proximity to its gravitational sphere of influence, including that of the electromagnetic spectrum.**

**As such and although it is observed (Two-dimensionally) as to appearing to behave in much the same way as a hole into solid matter does, it is not a hole, it is a super-dense gravitational focal-point in empty space.**

****

Rhetorical Questions

1. Are electromagnetic particles flat, or are they infinitesimal quanta’s of radiant energy that exist in the form of infinitesimal spheres of spinning and radiating particles of electromagnetic influence?

2. Are atoms flat or are they composites of infinitesimal quanta's of radiant energy orbiting around the central gravitational nucleus of an atom, within the limits of its gravitational field and its surrounding space?

3. Can anything of the physically apparent

4. Given, that the space surrounding each of us, and our planet, are extents of voluminous emptiness.

How in logic and in rationality can it be claimed, that the mathematical propositions of Euclid’s straight linear geometry, can be applied, to what is essentially directionless non-geometrical empty space?

Reality As previously relative to lines being a breadth-less width, and in regard to linear drawn geometry, a point possesses a part of surface area which has been covered over with graphite or a coloured pigment.

Reality A straight line is a line which lies evenly *of* itself over an evenly straight flat surface.

Reality A surface is that which has length breadth and depth.

1. Are electromagnetic particles flat, or are they infinitesimal quanta’s of radiant energy that exist in the form of infinitesimal spheres of spinning and radiating particles of electromagnetic influence?

2. Are atoms flat or are they composites of infinitesimal quanta's of radiant energy orbiting around the central gravitational nucleus of an atom, within the limits of its gravitational field and its surrounding space?

3. Can anything of the physically apparent

*(macro-cosmic)*cosmos be straight or flat, as all physical things of the macro-cosmic universe are constructed from composites of infinitesimal*(microcosmic-quantum)*electromagnetic*(gravitational)*particles, which spin and*(centrifugally)*radiate their spheres of electromagnetic influence outward into all sectors of their immediate surrounding space?4. Given, that the space surrounding each of us, and our planet, are extents of voluminous emptiness.

How in logic and in rationality can it be claimed, that the mathematical propositions of Euclid’s straight linear geometry, can be applied, to what is essentially directionless non-geometrical empty space?

__Euclidean Linear Definitions____Euclid__A line is a breadth-less length.**Reality A line is not a breadth-less length in regard to Euclidean and Archimedean linear drawn geometry, as any drawn line must and does, take up an amount of surface area.****A line which can be termed as to being a breadth-less width, is a line which exists in two forms.****1. The lines which only exist within our mind’s eye, for example the imaginary lines that we use to connect the stars of the constellations into linear patterns, and the dots of a hidden drawing quiz into a shape.****2. The visibly apparent lines, that serve to define the shapes of bodies, objects and sketches against a contrasting background.****T****hese lines are not**__out__l**ines, they are made up of the alignments of atoms that go into the makeups of the surfaces of solid objects, which serve to delineate the overall volumes to the sizes of their shapes, contrasted against a dissimilar colour or texture of background***(e.g. the silhouette of the yellow round shape of the Moon, being contrasted against the darkness of the night sky).***And the alignments of atoms that go into the makeups of the edges of sketches and diagrams, which also serve to delineate their overall shapes against a dissimilar and contrasting colour or texture of surface area.****A point is that which has no part.**__Euclid__Reality As previously relative to lines being a breadth-less width, and in regard to linear drawn geometry, a point possesses a part of surface area which has been covered over with graphite or a coloured pigment.

__Euclid__A straight line is a line which lies evenly on itself.Reality A straight line is a line which lies evenly *of* itself over an evenly straight flat surface.

__Euclid__A surface is that which has length and breadth only.Reality A surface is that which has length breadth and depth.

__Euclid__**The Extremities of a surface are line.****Reality The extremities of a surface relative its shape, is its naked edge.****The extremities of surface to a solid, is governed by its volume.****The volumes of****solid****ovoids and spheres, do not have any extremities to their curvatures of surface.**

**FOUR DIMENSIONS**

OF

EUCLIDEAN LINEAR GEOMETRY

VS

THE

EVER SPINNING AND EVER EVOLVING

PARTICLE AND ATOMIC BASED GEOMETRY OF THE COSMOS

OF

EUCLIDEAN LINEAR GEOMETRY

VS

THE

EVER SPINNING AND EVER EVOLVING

PARTICLE AND ATOMIC BASED GEOMETRY OF THE COSMOS

****

Euclidean Linear-Dimensional Geometry1. Lateral Radius2. Diagonal Radius 3 Vertical Radius Archimedean Linear 4. Curvaceous Outer Circumference length |
360 Degree Differential Geometry ProtractorA protractor is a solid form of a circle, which has 360 lengths of degree to the total length of its curvaceous edge.And the atoms that go into the edge to the length of protractors circle, are in direct contact with the atoms of the surrounding atmosphere.Reality The atoms of the surfaces of all solid shapes, are always in direct contact with the surrounding atmosphere.And the atoms to the edges of all shapes sketched on to a surface, are always in direct contact with the atoms of their immediate adjacent and surrounding area of surface. All circles and shapes, possess a length to their edges, but do not possess a length of outline. |
Physics Non-Linear Quantum Geometry1. Lateral motion of orbit2. Diagonal motion of orbit 3 Vertical motion of orbit Differential Non-LinearCurvaceous Motions of Orbits |

Atom - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of ...

An illustration of the helium atom, depicting the nucleus(pink) and the electron cloud distribution (black). The nucleus (upper right) in helium-4 is in reality spherically symmetric and closely resembles the electron cloud, although for more complicated nuclei this is not always the case. The black bar is one angstrom (10−10 m or 100 pm).

__Preliminary References__Atom - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element. Every solid, liquid, gas, and plasma is composed of ...

An illustration of the helium atom, depicting the nucleus(pink) and the electron cloud distribution (black). The nucleus (upper right) in helium-4 is in reality spherically symmetric and closely resembles the electron cloud, although for more complicated nuclei this is not always the case. The black bar is one angstrom (10−10 m or 100 pm).

**Electron microscope**

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects. A scanning transmission electron microscope has achieved better than 50 pm resolution in annular dark-field imaging mode[1] and magnifications of up to about 10,000,000x

atoms in solids seen directly by microscope for first time

https://www.nytimes.com/.../atoms-in-solids-seen-directly-by-microscope-for-first-time.h...

Oct 4, 1983 - Other electron microscopes can generate glimpses of individual atoms, said ... is able to give a clear picture of how atoms are mutually bonded.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects. A scanning transmission electron microscope has achieved better than 50 pm resolution in annular dark-field imaging mode[1] and magnifications of up to about 10,000,000x

atoms in solids seen directly by microscope for first time

https://www.nytimes.com/.../atoms-in-solids-seen-directly-by-microscope-for-first-time.h...

Oct 4, 1983 - Other electron microscopes can generate glimpses of individual atoms, said ... is able to give a clear picture of how atoms are mutually bonded.

**ScienceAlert**

**https://www.sciencealert.com/99-9999999-of-your-body-is-empty-space**

Sep 23, 2016 - If the nucleus were the size of a peanut, the

Sep 23, 2016 - If the nucleus were the size of a peanut, the

*atom*would be about the size of a baseball stadium. If we lost all the dead*space inside*our atoms, we would each be able to fit into a particle of dust, and the entire human species would fit into the volume of a sugar cube.**Despite all of the discoveries that have been made in the fields of physics astrophysics and quantum physics over the last century, academia has failed to recognize that the Euclid’s straight linear based geometry, does not have any bearing upon, nor relativity as to how the energy of the cosmos behaves.**

**Via the means of the differential**

*(circulating - circumnavigating - orbiting)***centrifugal forces generated by the spins of all particles, atoms, matter, celestial bodies, galaxies; which serve to drive and shape the ever evolving**

**masses within the turbulent gravitational currents of the cosmos.**

****

FOUR DIMENSIONS OF MACRO-COSMIC DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

To be continued

FOUR DIMENSIONS OF MACRO-COSMIC DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

To be continued

**Four Empirical Dimensions of “Macro-cosmic” Realism.**

**Diagrammatic: Internal Perspective Of One Eighth Of A Sphere**

Vertical - Height (Orthographic tech-drawing)

Vertical - Height (Orthographic tech-drawing)

**Lateral - Width and Length (Orthographic tech-drawing)**

**Angular - Diagonal Perspective of Depth (Isometric tech-drawing)**

**Curvature - Perspective of depth (Isometric tech-drawing)**

**Diagrammatic: Sensory Visual: External View Of A Sphere**

**Height**

**Width**

**Diagonal**

**Depth of perspective**

**More simply{ One dimension of diameter length (two-radii) accompanied with a perception of depth.**

****

**Visual Differential Stereoscopic Binocular View Of The World**

Vertical

Lateral

Diagonal

Depth of perception

Visual Non-Differential (Euclidean) Monocular View Of The World

Vertical

Lateral

Diagonal

No Depth of perception

Vertical

Lateral

Diagonal

Depth of perception

Visual Non-Differential (Euclidean) Monocular View Of The World

Vertical

Lateral

Diagonal

No Depth of perception

MOTHER NATURE IS THE FORCE

OF

__REALITY VERSUS FICTION__MOTHER NATURE IS THE FORCE

OF

**THE**

**UBIQUITOUS DIFFERENTIAL ENERGY OF COSMIC UNIVERSAL SPACE**

**Of**

All That Has Been - All That Is - All That Will Be

All That Has Been - All That Is - All That Will Be